Eva M. Witesman, Curtis Child, G, Breck Wightman
Although sector choice theory is improving, we have less understanding of how social entrepreneurs view their sector choices in hindsight, particularly given the various barriers to changing organizational form once a legal entity has been established. This article finds that one in six organizational founders in the fair trade industry regrets their initial sector choice. In addition to defining and examining the prevalence of sector regret, this article also identifies three factors that correlate with the sector preferences of fair trade entrepreneurs postestablishment: general funding and support, the availability of grants, and salary. In other words, money, money, and money. As presaged by Dennis Young in 1983, financial flexibility appears to be a key factor in sector fit. Using semistructured interviews (n = 46) and a survey (n = 117), this article examines sector regret and what it tells us about the real differences between the sectors.
Curtis Child, Eva M. Witesman
Objective. This study examines how people evaluate prosocial initiatives—in particular, whether they exhibit optimism bias when asked to consider the outcomes of a hypothetical initiative that is described to take place in the nonprofit, business, or government sector. It also assesses the conditions under which optimism bias is malleable. Methods. We use a survey with an experimental component to compare subjects’ evaluations of a hypothetical initiative across a set of priming (positive prime, negative prime, no prime) and sector (nonprofit, government, business, social business) conditions. Results. We find evidence that optimism bias is widespread, regardless of the sector in question. Subjects are only inclined to alter their assessments when provided with new information that is positive (in contrast to new information that is negative). Conclusion. The findings offer qualified support for the blurring hypothesis, suggesting that sector may be losing its status as a defining characteristic of the organizational landscape.
Eric C. Dahlin
Current explanations undertheorize success across the broad stages of innovation, which include product invention, development, implementation, and success. While existing scholarship typically examines one, sometimes two, of these stages, innovation must be viewed more broadly with success resulting from the involvement of a wide range of actors including the firm, alliance partner, and overall network. In this article, I apply a network perspective to explain success across these stages. The argument I develop is that different types of networks are more relevant to certain stages of innovation. Network activity that increases from lower to higher levels of analysis is associated with success across the stages of innovation. Specifically, firm inventors influence product invention, successful product development and implementation are associated with dyadic-level relationships between strategic alliance partners, and product success is impacted by a firm’s central location in its entire network of strategic alliances. Results from regression models provide broad support for network approach advocated in this article.
Meagan Rainock, Dallin Everett, Andrew Pack, Eric C. Dahlin, Christopher A. Mattson
Many agree that every product has economic, environmental, and social impacts on those who use and produce them. While environmental and economic impacts are well known and measures have been developed, our understanding of social impacts is still developing. While efforts have been made to identify social impacts, academics, and practitioners still disagree on which phenomena should be included, and few have focused on the impacts of products specifically compared with programs, policies, or other projects. The primary contribution of this review essay is to integrate scholarship from a wide array of social science and engineering disciplines that categorizes the social phenomena that are affected by products. Specifically, we identify social impacts and processes including population change, family, gender, education, stratification, employment, health and well-being, human rights, networks and communication, conflict and crime, and cultural identity/heritage. These categories are important because they can be used to inform academics and practitioners alike who are interested in creating products that generate positive social benefits for users.
Shawn D. Gale, Andrew N. Berrett, Lance D. Erickson, Bruce L. Brown, Dawson W. Hedges
Mood disorders are common mental illnesses. Among the factors associated with major depression are exposures to infectious diseases including hepatitis C, influenza, varicella-zoster, and herpes viruses. In this study, we sought to evaluate further associations between viral exposure and depression. From the US Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we obtained data about depression status, antidepressant use, exposure to hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus, and sociodemographic variables and evaluated associations between depression and viral exposure in adjusted multivariable models. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was associated with an increased risk of depression, whereas hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and herpes simplex virus type 1 were not. Higher cytomegalovirus antibody levels were associated with depression in subjects seropositive for cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, exposure to herpes simplex virus type 2 and possibly cytomegalovirus are associated with depression in an adult US sample.
Ryan Gabriel, Amy Spring
Past research has indicated that mixed-race couples with children appear to possess a heightened preference for neighborhoods that are racially and ethnically diverse and relatively affluent so as to reside in areas that are requisitely accepting of, and safe for, their children. However, neighborhoods with higher racial and ethnic diversity tend to be lower in socioeconomic status, implying that some residentially mobile mixed-race couples with children encounter trade-offs between neighborhood diversity and neighborhood affluence in their residential search processes. To investigate this, we apply discrete-choice models to longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics linked to neighborhood-level data from multiple population censuses to compare the neighborhood choices of mixed-race couples with children to those of monoracial couples with children, while assessing how these choices are simultaneously driven by neighborhood diversity and neighborhood affluence. We observe that mixed-race couples with children tend to be more likely to choose higher-diversity neighborhoods than white couples with children, even when neighborhood affluence is allowed to determine the residential choices for these couples. Some higher-income mixed-race couples with children seemingly translate their resources into neighborhoods that are both diverse and affluent.
Despite substantial growth in mixed-race coupling, we know little about their association with neighborhood poverty. To address this gap, I utilize data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics linked to information from four censuses. With these data, I assess the extent to which mixed-race couples are more likely than monoracial couples to migrate in response to higher percentages of neighborhood poverty; and, once they move, I examine the percentage poverty in their destination neighborhoods. I find that most mixed-race couples are similar to white couples in their out-mobility responses to neighborhood poverty. However, when mixed-race couples with black partners migrate they tend to move to neighborhoods with higher poverty concentrations than couples without a black partner. Mixed-race couples without black partners experience similar percentages of poverty in their destination neighborhoods as whites, providing further evidence of the profound impact of black race on residential stratification.
Benjamin G. Gibbs, Renata Forste, Emily Lybbert
Objectives: Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development—specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting.
Methods: We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding.
Results: We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child’s temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures (“warm and cuddly,” “cooperative”) and lower scores on one measure (“demanding/angry”).
Conclusions for Practice: Breastfeeding has an important link to the child’s use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child’s temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or distressed the child becomes when separated.
John P. Hoffmann, Mikaela Dufur
There is a long history in criminology of examining the effects of social bonds on criminal behavior. A similar conceptual framework that developed in sociology is social capital theory. Studies using these models have addressed the effects of parent–child relationships on adolescent behavior. However, social bond theory tends to predominate as an explanation of juvenile delinquency. We developed a comparative analysis of measures of family social bonds and family social capital using nationally representative data on youth (N = 6,432). Measurement models suggested that family social capital is a more parsimonious latent construct than family social bonds. Moreover, it is a more efficient predictor of delinquent behavior. Thus, we encourage criminologists to adopt family social capital as a promising concept and empirical variable in their quest to understand delinquent behavior.
John P. Hoffmann
Considerable research has addressed whether various academic factors affect involvement in delinquent behavior among youth. Yet few studies have assessed the association between academic underachievement and delinquency. Academic underachievement is defined as school performance, such as measured by grades, that falls below what is predicted by standardized tests of mental/cognitive ability. Using two waves of longitudinal data (n = 11,223), this study aimed to evaluate this association and determine if it is affected by school attachment, family relations, parental education, or self-control. The results of the empirical model suggested a modest association between academic underachievement and delinquent behavior, but it was partially attenuated by attention deficits, an indicator of low self-control. Additional analyses indicated that attention deficits were associated with both underachievement and delinquent behavior.
Toby L. Parcel, John P. Hoffmann
This volume highlights the theoretical and empirical connections between family sociology and criminology. We review the historical interconnections between these two fields. We argue for greater intellectual conversation across the two areas, and then we identify several elements they hold in common. These include their use of social theory, their attention to human development, and their use and appreciation of longitudinal research. We conclude with brief overviews of the six articles that make up this special issue.
Florencia Silveira, Mikaela J. Dufur, Jonathan A. Jarvis, Kristie J. Rowley
With recent increases in international migration, some political and academic narratives argue for limiting migration because of possible negative effects on the host country. Among other outcomes, these groups argue that immigrant students have an impact on education, negatively affecting native-born students’ academic performance. The authors contextualize the relationship between immigrant status and academic achievement by considering a macro social setting: country-level foreign-born population. The authors examine achievement from the 2015 Programme for International Student Assessment in 41 high-income countries. The authors use within- and cross-level interactions to examine (1) the relationship between immigrant status and academic achievement, (2) the moderating effect of student socioeconomic status on achievement, and (3) how country-level foreign-born population affects both immigrant and native-born students’ performance. The findings indicate that immigrant students perform similarly to native-born students when considering other contextual factors, with socioeconomic status moderating the effect of immigrant status. Furthermore, all students, immigrant and nonimmigrant students alike, benefit academically from more immigration.
Melissa S. Jones, B. Mitchell Peck, Susan F. Sharp, David A. McLeod
Although past research documents strong linkages between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) in the lives of women prisoners, researchers have often neglected to consider the potential mediating role of PTSD in the relationships between ACEs and adult IPV. Using data from a stratified random sample of all incarcerated women in Oklahoma (N = 334), we explore the relationships between ACEs, PTSD symptomology, and adult IPV utilizing a feminist life course theoretical framework. Results indicate that PTSD symptomology fully mediates the relationship between ACEs and adult IPV, suggesting that PTSD may be central to understanding pathways to adult IPV as well as offending and incarceration for women. Implications and suggestions for policy and future research are offered.
Amy D. Miller, Melissa S. Jones, Cyrus Schleifer
Although research recognizes gender differences in offending and interactions with the criminal justice system, few studies have explored the role of gender in the relationship between postrelease supervision and recidivism. Building on feminist criminological research, this study uses a feminist pathways theoretical framework to investigate the overall and gendered effects of postrelease supervision on multiple measures of recidivism. Using a large sample of offenders released from prisons in Florida (N = 141,338) and propensity score matching techniques, this study uncovers that postrelease supervision is associated with a very small (4% to 4.5%) reduction in recidivism. Moreover, the effect sizes from the analyses also indicate that postrelease supervision plays a greater role in reducing recidivism among men, but the effects for women are much smaller. Based on this study’s findings, policymakers should consider the importance of gender in designing appropriate programming in prison and developing postrelease techniques in reducing recidivism.
Stan J. Knapp, Greg Wurm
We review how recent family scholarship theorizes recent family change as either a process of deinstitutionalization, in which family can no longer be understood in institutional terms, or a process of diversification, in which family life is expanding but not losing its institutional character. We argue that both approaches emerge out of and depend on a social institutional framework for understanding family that was developed in 20th-century sociology. Despite producing a wealth of research, both approaches have difficulty adequately conceptualizing the institutional character of family and providing ways of theorizing family change. We introduce an alternative to a social institutional framework, a Weberian institutional logics approach, which provides a different way to understand the institutional character of family life and thereby affords new interpretations and avenues for theory and research on family change in the 21st century.
Isaac William Martin, Jane Lilly Lopez, Lauren Olsen
Residents of the United States rely on municipal governments to deliver important public goods but are often reluctant to pay for those goods. Can tax policy design affect voters’ propensity to say yes to local taxes? We answer this question by analyzing a new database of 929 tax increases of heterogeneous design that were proposed to California voters from 1996 to 2010. We find that voters’ willingness to raise a municipal tax varies with the choice of tax base, as well as with such policy design features as its timing and its symbolic links to particular purposes. The political limits on city revenue may vary substantially depending on how a tax is designed, and theories that assume otherwise—including several classic models of urban politics—may exaggerate the degree to which municipal revenues are constrained.
Jane Lilly Lopez
The term ‘transnationalism’ evokes notions of unity and strong bonds cultivated across international borders, and scholars of transnationalism have highlighted the ways in which international migrants’ cross-border ties have reduced the social and emotional distance between home and host communities. Based on data from interviews with 24 mixed-citizenship couples living in Mexican border cities, I find that the experience of transnationalism for these families is, surprisingly, quite the opposite of its outcomes: while transnational actors unify individuals, families, and communities that would otherwise be disconnected, the transnational actors themselves assume that burden of disconnection. Whether or not they regularly cross the border, borderlands transmigrants and their families experience the intrusion of the border on their lives in three specific ways: through the physical and symbolic presence of the border; through the act of crossing the border; and through US immigration laws and their associated punishments embodied by the border. While these families epitomise ‘transnationalism’ as it is described in the literature, their day-to-day experiences do not resonate as life across, beyond, or through borders, but rather an ‘entre-national’ life between borders, one bifurcated by the border and the sovereign powers it represents.
Background: A growing number of women in Cambodia are seeking support from health facilities during delivery, up from 8% in 2000 to 82% in 2014. This growth may be attributed to increased national level attention to incentivize hospital births and reduce potential barriers. This paper address three related questions regarding the impact of increased utilization of health care in Cambodia. First, did increasing health facility deliveries occur most among disadvantaged women? Second, as health facility utilization increased, did the benefit of delivery location on child health outcomes weaken? Finally, did socioeconomic disparities in child outcomes decline as a result of increased health facility deliveries?
Methods: Data is from the 2010 and 2014 Cambodian Demographic and health surveys. Regression models include logistic regression to predict utilization of a health facility, linear regression to predict child nutritional status and Cox regression to measure child survival. Propensity score matching was used to account for selectivity.
Results: Analysis shows that health facility delivery is associated with better nutritional status and survival and the effectiveness of a health center delivery remains with this rapidly increasing care. However, the largest increases in delivery at a health facility did not occur among less educated, less wealthy, and rural Cambodian women, and inequalities in child health outcomes remain.
Conclusions: Cambodian women have participated in a rapid increase in health center deliveries and those health facility deliveries remain beneficial for future child outcomes. However, initiatives to increase care are not addressing inequity in access to care among disadvantaged women. Additionally, disparities in children’s health outcomes remain, suggesting that health facility births are not sufficient in reducing disparities among children of disadvantaged mothers. Moving forward, current initiatives are rapidly increasing facility deliveries and maintaining their efficacy, but further efforts need to be placed on targeting disadvantaged women and their children.
Jacob S. Rugh
In this article, I explore how race, class, and migration influence Latino household wealth, and uncover important implications for the close 2016 US presidential election outcome in Florida. I follow over 11,000 homeowners in the Orlando area of Orange County, Florida from 2004 to 2016. To proxy for immigrant incorporation, I leverage matched voter registration records and direct observation of borrower identification – driver’s license, green card/passport, or undocumented identification. Documented immigrants appear least vulnerable to foreclosure; multivariate analyses show that Latinos with undocumented identification are most vulnerable. Foreclosure and negative equity predict decreases in voter activity among Latino Democrats and Latino Independents, respectively, but not among Latino Republicans. I confirm this pattern at the precinct-level using data on all Orange County voters. Across Florida, county-level Latino foreclosures and lagging home prices correspond to a decline in the Democratic presidential vote from 2012 to 2016. My analysis reveals the mechanisms that erase Latino home equity and how the loss of wealth may have played a role in flipping Florida from a blue state to a red state.
Brian C. Thiede, Scott R. Sanders, Daniel T. Lichter
The authors examine racial disparities in infants’ exposure to economic disadvantage at the family and local area levels. Using data from the 2008–2014 files of the American Community Survey, the authors provide an up-to-date empirical benchmark of newborns’ exposure to poverty. Large shares of Hispanic (36.5 percent) and black (43.2 percent) infants are born poor, though white infants are also overrepresented among the poor (17.7 percent). The authors then estimate regression models to identify risk factors and perform decompositions to identify compositional factors underlying between-race differences. Although more than half of the black-white poverty gap is explained by differences in family structure and employment, these factors account for less than one quarter of white-Hispanic differences. The results also highlight the unmet need for social protection among babies born to poor families lacking access to assistance programs and the safety net. Hispanic infants are particularly likely to be doubly disadvantaged in this manner. Moreover, large and disproportionate shares of today’s black (48.3 percent) and Hispanic (40.5 percent) babies are born into poor families and places with poverty rates above 20 percent. These results raise important questions about persistent and possibly growing racial inequality as America makes its way to a majority-minority society as early as 2043.
David L. Brown, Nina Glasgow, Laszloo J. Kulcsar, Scott Sanders, Brian C. Thiede
Many rural communities in the United States are experiencing significant population aging, and these changes in age structure are often associated with shifts in economic activity. The demands for certain goods and services are expected to vary across age groups, and public- and private-sector service providers may make decisions based on their interpretation of demographic trends. The extent to which these perceived changes in the demand for services align with their provision has significant implications for the well-being of the older residents of aging communities. In this article, we draw on case studies of four aging communities across the rural United States to examine the provision of, and access to, aging-related services. We analyze how service provision is organized both within and between communities, how this organization is associated with the kinds of services available, the ways that older residents gain access to services, and the set of barriers to access they face. Our research suggests that aging-related service provision in rural communities is facilitated by partnerships among local community institutions and between them and external organizations. While in many cases population aging is associated with economic decline, the impact of demographic change is not mechanistic nor automatic. Our research shows that aging rural communities can be resilient, and that cooperative, multi-scalar relationships are a key to maintaining quality of life among older residents of communities with aging populations.
Richard J. Petts, Kevin M. Shafer, Lee Essig
Research suggests that many fathers struggle balancing hegemonic masculine norms with new fatherhood ideals. This study uses data on 2,194 fathers from a national study on fathers of children aged 2 to 18 and incorporates a comprehensive assessment of masculine norms to examine whether adherence to masculine norms is associated with father involvement and whether this relationship is mediated by fathers' adherence to the new fatherhood ideal that promotes engaged, nurturing parenting. Results suggest that fathers who more closely adhere to masculine norms are less involved in instrumental and expressive parenting and are more likely to engage in harsh discipline than fathers who are less masculine. Adherence to masculine norms also reduces the likelihood of embracing the new fatherhood ideal, and adherence to the new fatherhood ideal at least partially mediates the relationship between masculinity and father involvement. Overall, despite changing expectations for fathers, hegemonic masculine norms continue to shape fathers' behavior.
Kevin Shafer, Brandon Fielding, Erin K. Holmes
While, overall, fathers have become more involved as parents, there may be significant variability in how involved fathers are in the lives of their children. This study examines how paternal depression and masculine norm adherence affect father involvement. Using new data from the Survey of Contemporary Fatherhood (N = 2,181) and ordinary least squares regression models, we focus on the effect of depression on four measures of fathering behavior, with masculine norm adherence as a moderator. Results indicated that depression and masculinity had independent effects on father involvement. Furthermore, masculinity moderated the effect of depression for warmth, engagement, and use of harsh parenting—but not positive control. These results have important implications for how we think about the impact of depression on parenting and the role of socialized response in understanding fathering outcomes.
Michael R. Cope, Paige N. Park, Jorden E. Jackson, Kayci A. Muirbrook, Scott R. Sanders, Carol Ward, Ralph B. Brown
We present a theoretical discussion conceptualizing “community as story”—narratives that create and recreate one’s definition of and relationship to their community. We use a variety of disciplinary sources and representative quotes to help develop the theory. In so doing, we discuss the importance of subjective perception, narrative and place to the creation of a community story. Community stories take place in time and place, and as changes to the place occur, residents are compelled to adjust their stories and definitions. These changes are reflected in narratives that reminisce about what the community was and what it is becoming. The narratives then become part of a new community story. Above and beyond our theoretical conceptualization of “community as story”, to help illustrate our arguments in an empirical setting, we present a historical narrative from interviews with residents of Vance, Alabama, home of the Mercedes-Benz plant, which discuss the changing nature of and relationship to their community after the arrival of the plant in the 1990s.
Ho-hin Ma, Gvain SW Chan, Gary KF Tsang, Jackie Poon, Carol Ward, Philip SL Beh
Background. This study aimed to understand the feelings, needs, and expectations of next of kin (NOK) after a patient’s death for quality improvement.
Methods. Adult family members who visited a mortuary to collect a body between 1 September and 31 December 2015 were invited to participate in a satisfaction survey.
Results. Of the 225 eligible families, 190 completed the questionnaire. The overall NOK experience was positive, with a mean overall satisfaction score of 3.43 (on a scale of 1 to 5). The satisfaction score was higher for mortuary services than ward bedside services (3.45 vs. 3.30). The aspect with lowest score was communication with physicians about the death (3.18), followed by mortuary environment (3.29), perceived body condition on collection (3.38), and duration of bedside stay after patient death (3.41). The interaction provided by mortuary staff received the highest satisfaction score (3.54).
Conclusions. The NOK journey in the hospital after a patient’s death was positive. Areas for improvement were identified. This survey provides an insight for hospital management and frontline healthcare staff about care for NOK.
A perennial concern in frame analysis is explaining how frames structure perception and persuade audiences. In this article, we suggest that the distinction between personal culture and public culture offers a productive way forward. We propose an approach centered on an analytic contrast between schemas, which we define as a form of personal culture, and frames, which we define as a form of public culture. We develop an “evocation model” of the structure and function of frames. In the model, frames are conceived as material assemblages that activate a network of schemas, thereby evoking a response when people are exposed to them. We discuss how the proposed model extends, and clarifies, extant approaches, and consider new directions for future research.